History Terms to Know

Social Studies Terms  from Essential Standards

Alliance- a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes

Allies- countries joining together to fight

Bias – an unfair act or policy resulting from prejudice

Capitalism  economic system; private property ownership exists; individuals and companies are allowed free market competition for the prices of goods and services.

Caste system a social class system set up in India; caste is fixed by birth, and each caste is associated with a traditional occupation

Colonization- an area of land controlled by another, usually distant, country

Columbian Exchangethe widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable diseases, technology and ideas between the east and west hemispheres; old and new worlds

Command economy: government makes the decisions about what, where, how and how much is produced and finally who will get what is produced.

Communism- characterized by complete government ownership of land and property, single-party control of the government, the lack of individual rights, and the call for worldwide revolution

Democracygovernment in which political authority is held by the people;  typically feature constitutional governments where the majority rules, a belief in individual liberty, equal rights, and freedom. 

Dictator a ruler with absolute power

Era a period of time in history.

Genocide  the extermination (Killing) of a cultural or racial group

Globalization:  process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.

Humanitarian Improving human welfare and happiness by assisting people in need

Imperialism when a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, and socially

Industrialization aka- Industrial Revolution.   transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency by increasing use of steam.

Innovation a newly introduced idea, invention or way of doing things that changes the world.

Interdependence people relying on each other in different places or in the same place for ideas, goods, and services

Market economy. Decisions regarding  investmentproduction and distribution are based on supply and demand,[1] and price  of goods and services 

Mecca A city in the western Arabian Peninsula and birthplace of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the seventh century CE. Although Mecca never became a large city, it is Islam's holiest center and the principal destination of Muslim pilgrims making the Hajj

Monarch a system of government in which the head of state, usually a royal figure (king, queen) is a hereditary position 

Monetary- money system

Nationalism an extreme form of patriotism for a country, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries..


NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization founded in 1948 to curb communist expansion. There are nineteen member countries of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an international cartel of thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified marketing policies, and regulation of petroleum extraction

Scarcity the condition that occurs because people’s wants and needs are unlimited, while the resources needed to produce goods and services to meet these wants and needs are limited.

Socialism any one of various systems in which the means of producing goods are owned by the community or the government rather than by private individuals with all people sharing in the work and the goods produced

Traditional economy an economy in which the three basic questions are answered by custom, or how things have been done in the past. Roles in traditional economies are gender based and often inherited. Barter holds an important position.

Urbanization a process in which there is an increase in the percentage of people living/working in cities and towns

World Trade Organization (WTO) - An international agency which encourages trade between member nations, administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.