2. Medical Advancements

Historical Narrative.
    By the end of the 19th century, scientists had identified the causes of tuberculosis, typhoid fever, leprosy, malaria, cholera, diphtheria, and pneumonia. Chemists had developed new medications or more effective forms of old ones. Improvements in nutrition, personal hygiene, and public health policies also contributed to a lower rate of deaths from infectious diseases.
Source: Global History and Geography: The Growth of Civilizations
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