Grades 9-12

“American Dream” is a national ethos of the United States in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success.  It is the aspiration of Americans to live better than their parents did.  The American Dream is a concept that builds the aspirations of Americans to live better than their parents upon the traditional social ideals of the US, such as equality, democracy, and material prosperity. 

Chronological thinking refers to the way that historians make sense of events by placing them in their order of occurrence in time. 

Economic issues are matters, which directly or indirectly affect the distribution of intellectual and material resources in a society.

Founding Principles - The constitutional values and principles held by Americans that provide the foundation for American attitudes regarding political life. These principles have influenced the development and maintenance of American constitutional democracy.   

Global interaction refers to the development of international systems of exchange that result in networks of trade and communications and cultural and political exchange.

Historical evidence is primary artifacts used to support a historical point of view or perspective.

Historical interpretation occurs when a certain historical event is described from different points of views.  When this is done in first-person, it is sometimes referred to as living history.

Historical narrative is an account, report or story of events or experiences that is based on factual evidence from the past.

Historical perspective - describing the past on its own terms, through the eyes and experiences of those who were there, as revealed through their literature, diaries, letters, debates, arts, artifacts, etc. 

Literal meaning refers to the meaning of a passage, text, etc. as the original author would have intended and what the original hearers/readers would have understood.

Multiple causation is the mutual effect by many different forces to cause a particular action or occurrence.

National identity is the depiction of a country as a whole, encompassing its culture, traditions, language, and politics. 

Philosophical theories are the theories and ideas that shaped the development of intellectual philosophies and spanned many popular political, social and economic debates.  The point of a theory is to explain observations, which in turn seek to explain the world or society in which we live.

Political issues are matters, which directly or indirectly affect a system involving government and its politics and are considered to be problems and controversies related to power and authority.  

Principles of American Constitutional Democracy – Popular sovereignty and constitutional government.  Constitutional government includes rule of law representative institutions, separated and shared powers, checks and balances, individual rights, separation of church and state, federalism, and civilian control of the military.  

Public interest - The public interest refers to the welfare of the general public (in contrast to the selfish interest of a person, group, or firm) in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies. 

Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect a person or members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both.

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