Essential Standards

Absolute Location – the exact position on the globe using addresses, grid coordinates, or the imaginary lines of longitude and latitude

Anarchy - Absence of any form of political authority.  A state of lawlessness, confusion, and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government.)

Ancient history – history of people living from the beginnings of human society through 300 CE 

Apartheid – policy of separation of the races enforced by law

Artifact – things made by humans, and used by archaeologists and historians to recreate a picture of the past. 

Barter – the direct trading of goods and services between people without the use of money.

Bias – an unfair act or policy resulting from prejudice. 

Bicameral  - a state government with two legislative chambers

Capital – cash, goods, natural resources, or human skills that are used to produce income.

Census - an official, usually periodic enumeration of a population, often including the collection of related demographic information. As required by the Constitution, the census of the population of the United States takes place every 10 years. 

Century – one hundred years.

Chronological order – arranged in order of time occurrence.

City-state - A self-governing city, often with surrounding lands it governs.

Colony - A group of emigrants or their descendants who settle in a distant territory but remain subject to or closely associated with the parent country. 

Conflicting viewpoint – a position taken by one individual group, or nation, which is in opposition to the position of another individual, group or nation. 

Continent - one of seven large landmasses on the Earth, which separates the oceans 

Crusade - Any of the military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. Also, a vigorous concerted movement for a cause or against an abuse.  

Culture--- the values, beliefs and perceptions of the world that are learned and are shared by members of a community or society, and which they use to interpret experience and to generate behavior, and that are reflected in their own behavior

Decade – ten years.

Democracy – a system of government in which political authority is held by the people; typically feature constitutional governments where the majority rules, a belief in individual liberty and in equal rights for all people, freedom of expression, political freedom, and freedom of choice. 

Dictator – a ruler with absolute power

Doctrine - A principle or body of principles presented for acceptance or belief, as by a religious, political, scientific, or philosophic group; dogma, e.g., Monroe Doctrine 

Domestic – of one’s own country; not foreign. 

Elevation - the height on the earth’s surface above or below sea level

Era – a period of time in history.

Exports – goods or services produced in one nation but sold to buyers in another nation.

Genocide – the extermination of a cultural or racial group.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year equals the total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports minus the value of imports. 

Indentured servitude – a contract between two people where one party agrees to work without any or minimal compensation to pay back money or an opportunity provided by the other

Landform  - the shape, form, or nature of a specific physical feature of the earth’s surface; e.g., plain, hill, valley, plateau, bay island 

Latitude – a measure of distance north or south of the equator.

Longitude – the position of a point on Earth’s surface expressed as its angular distance, east or west, from the prime meridian to 180° 

Millennium – one thousand years 

Monarchy – a system of government in which the head of state, usually a royal figure (king, queen) is a hereditary position 

Monotheistic- religious system based on the belief in one God.  Judaism, Christianity and Islam are primary examples of this.

Natural Resources – anything from the natural environment that people use to meet their needs.  They are “gifts of nature” that are present without human intervention.

OPEC – the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an international cartel of thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified marketing policies, and regulation of petroleum extraction

Parliamentary System – a system of government in which power is concentrated in a legislature.  The legislature selects one of its members, usually called a prime minister, as the nations’ principal leader and other legislative members deserve as the leader’s cabinet. 

Partisan - A fervent, sometimes militant supporter or proponent of a party, cause, faction, person, or idea 

Plains - landform feature characterized by gentle slopes and minimum of local relief  

Plateau – landform features characterized by high elevation and gentle upland slopes (e.g., the Grand Canyon area of the United States. 

Platform - A formal declaration of the principles on which a group, such as a political party, makes its appeal to the public. 

Popular sovereignty – the citizens are collectively the sovereign of the state and hold the ultimate authority over public officials and their policies. 

Primary Source Documents – original documents that help us learn about past people or events (e.g., letters, diaries, maps, drawings, laws, statutes,). 

Primary Sources – any document or artifacts that is direct evidence of historical events including clothing, furniture, homes, recordings, documents and photographs.

Propaganda – the systematic spreading of ideas or beliefs reflecting the views and interests of those advocating a doctrine or cause.

Republic - a republic is a sovereign state in which all segments of society are enfranchised and in which the state's power is constitutionally limited. A republic is distinguished from a true democracy in that the republic operates through a representative assembly chosen by the citizenry, while in a democracy the populace participates directly in governmental affairs. 

Rural – areas of low population density 

Scale – on maps the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on Earth’s surface.  For example, the scale 1:1,000,000 means one unit (mile or kilometer) on the map and represents 1,000,000 similar units on Earth’s surface.  Also refers to the size of places or regions being studied. 

Socialism – any one of various systems in which the means of producing goods are owned by the community or the government rather than by private individuals with all people sharing in the work and the goods produced

Sovereign - the person, body, or state in which independent and supreme authority is vested; such as, in a monarchy, a king, queen, or emperor---in the United States, the people. 

Surpluses – the situation resulting when the quantity supplied exceeds that quantity demanded of a good, service, or resource.

Tariff – tax on foreign goods brought into a country. An official schedule of taxes imposed by a government on imports or exports

Totalitarian – country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people 

Trade/Exchange – trading goods and services with people for other goods and services or for money.  When people exchange voluntarily, they expect to be better off as a result.

Treaty - A formal agreement between two or more states, as in reference to terms of peace or trade.  

Unicameral  - a state government with a single legislative chamber 

Urban – an area characterized as a city or town where the population density is greater than in the surrounding area and is acknowledged as a major cultural, service, and production location in a region  

SOURCES USED: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/10-02Glossary_48851_7.pdf

 

Social Studies Terms to Know from Essential Standards

 

Alliance- a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes

 

Alliescountries joining together to fight

 

Bias – an unfair act or policy resulting from prejudice

 

Capitalism  economic system characterized by the following: private property ownership exists; individuals and companies are allowed to compete for their own economic gain; and free market forces determine the prices of goods and services.

 

Caste system a social class system set up in India; caste is fixed by birth, and each caste is associated with a traditional occupation

 

Colonization- an area of land controlled by another, usually distant, country

 

Columbian Exchange The trans-oceanic transmission of plants, animals, microorganisms, and people that followed the establishment of regular contact between Afroeurasia and the Americas in the late fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. Because life forms evolved separately in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres for millions of years, these transmissions had far-reaching biological, economic, cultural, and social effects on both American and Afroeurasian societies

 

Command economy an economy in which the government makes the decisions about what, where, how and how much is produced and finally who will get what is produced.

 

Communism- characterized there by complete government ownership of land and property, single-party control of the government, the lack of individual rights, and the call for worldwide revolution

 

Cultural the values, beliefs and perceptions of the world that are learned and are shared by members of a community or society, and which they use to interpret experience and to generate behavior, and that are reflected in their own behavior

 

Democracy a system of government in which political authority is held by the people;  typically feature constitutional governments where the majority rules, a belief in individual liberty and in equal rights for all people, freedom of expression, political freedom, and freedom of choice. 

 

Dictator a ruler with absolute power

 

Era a period of time in history.

 

Genocide  the extermination (Killing) of a cultural or racial group

 

Humanitarian Improving human welfare and happiness by assisting people in need

 

Imperialism when a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, and socially

 

Industrialization Also the Industrial Revolution.   Exploited fossil fuels and related technologies to mass produce goods with machines on an unprecedented scale and to distribute those goods worldwide.

 

Innovation a newly introduced idea, invention or way of doing things that changes the world.

 

Interdependence people relying on each other in different places or in the same place for ideas, goods, and services

 

Market economy an economic system based only on the interaction of market forces, such as supply and demand. A true market economy is free of governmental influence, collusion and other external interference, and buyers and sellers making exchanges determine prices

 

Mecca A city in the western Arabian Peninsula and birthplace of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the seventh century CE. Although Mecca never became a large city, it is Islam's holiest center and the principal destination of Muslim pilgrims making the Hajj

 

Monarch a system of government in which the head of state, usually a royal figure (king, queen) is a hereditary position 

 

Monetary- money system

 

Nationalism - The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals.

 

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization founded in 1948 to curb communist expansion. There are nineteen member countries of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

 

OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an international cartel of thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified marketing policies, and regulation of petroleum extraction

 

Scarcity the condition that occurs because people’s wants and needs are unlimited, while the resources needed to produce goods and services to meet these wants and needs are limited.

 

Socialism any one of various systems in which the means of producing goods are owned by the community or the government rather than by private individuals with all people sharing in the work and the goods produced

 

Traditional economy an economy in which the three basic questions are answered by custom, or how things have been done in the past. Roles in traditional economies are gender based and often inherited. Barter holds an important position.

 

Urbanization a process in which there is an increase in the percentage of people living/working in cities and towns

 

World Trade Organization (WTO) - An international agency which encourages trade between member nations, administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.

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